Thursday, July 19, 2007

פנימיות ההלכה : הלכות תשע באב

שו"ע אורח חיים סימן תקמט
(א) חייבים להתענות בתשעה באב ובי"ז בתמוז ובג' בתשרי ובעשרה בטבת מפני דברים הרעים שאירעו בהם:
(ב) אע"ג דכתיב בקרא בחדש הרביעי בתשעה לחודש הובקעה העיר אין מתענין בט' בו אלא בי"ז מפני שאף על פי שבראשונה הובקעה בט' בו כיון שבשניה הובקעה בי"ז בו תקנו להתענות בי"ז בו משום דחורבן בית שני חמיר לן:

During the days of the fasts of the Churban (9th of Av, 17th of Tamuz, 10 of Teves, Tzom Gedalia) the Sitra Achra is at peak strength, and because of this, the disasters and churbanos occurred on those days. It is for this reason which we fast on these days, to do awaken our hearts in Teshuva and weaken the hold of Eisav and his domain. The main area where Eisav and his side have rule over is in eating and drinking, as we all know that eating and drinking is a great Taiva for everyone. This can be seen from the Zohar (3:198a) which links the Ben Sorer u Moreh to exile- through his eating and drinking he causes destruction and exile.
On Tisha B'av his hold is even stronger as Tisha Bav corresponds to the place on the thigh where Eisav (or his Malach) struck Yaakov. The Zohar (1:170b)says "it is for this reason the children don't eat the gid hanashe which is Tisha Bav that they don't eat on." The Nachas Hashulchan explains; Who was greater than Yaakov Avinu who included within him all of the Neshamos, and fought the Yetzer Hara (who is the Malach of Eisav and the accuser) for all of the Jewish people? Yaakov Avinu won, but as the Yetzer Hara saw that he could not triumph, in order to try and flee, damaged Yaakov Avinu in the thigh, and this is the cause of the tragedies, Churbanos and the fast of Tisha B'av that why it is the most stringent of the fasts of exile.

שו"ע אורח חיים סימן תקנ
(ב) צומות הללו חוץ מט' באב מותרים ברחיצה וסיכה ונעילת הסנדל ותשמיש המטה ואין צריך להפסיק בהם מבעוד יום
(שו"ע אורח חיים סימן תקנא
(א) משנכנס אב ממעטין בשמחה ובר ישראל דאית ליה דינא בהדי נכרי לישתמיט מיניה דריע מזליה: הגה מילה שהיא מר"ח עד ט' באב נוהגין שהמוהל ובעל ברית ואבי הבן לובשין בגדי שבת (מנהגים) אבל בלאו הכי אסור אפילו בשבת של חזון אין מחליפין ללבוש בגדי שבת כ"א הכתונת לבד (מרדכי הל' תשעה באב והגהות אשירי פ"ב דתענית ואגודה ורוקח) אבל פורשין פרוכת של שבת אם לא שאירע ט' באב בשבת ונדחה שאז אין פורשין פרוכת של שבת ומי שיש לו נשואין בשבת נחמו מותר ללבוש בגדי שבת בשבת של חזון (מהרי"ל):
The five Inuyim of Tish Bav and the fact that we begin fasting while it is still day, as well as the rule that when Av enters, we decrease our happiness, is to continue weakening Eisav and the other side's hold on us.
The reason why we try to avoid court with a non Jew, after what we have spoken about is very clear, that these are days that Eisav has a strong hold over.

שו"ע אורח חיים סימן תקנא
(יז) טוב ליזהר מלומר שהחיינו בין המצרים על פרי או על מלבוש אבל על פדיון הבן אומר ולא יחמיץ המצוה (וכן בפרי שלא ימצא אחר ט' באב מותר לברך ולאכלו בין המצרים) (בנימין זאב סי' קס"ג ותשובת מהרי"ל):

We are do not make a Shehechiayanu on new fruit during this time as the Chochma, (the inherent divine wisdom in all things) is not as perceivable due to Eisav's hold over these days. However during any mitzvah we can perceive the Chochma, and therefore may make a Shehechiyanu. Even more so a Pidyon haben- a mitzvah whose opportunity to perform it has clearly has been given from Hashem, allows us to see the Chochma. The mitzva of pidyon haben as well as that stresses the idea of holiness of the Bechor and all beginnings. The wisdom which is in everything was the starting point for its creation; one does not build without a plan.

Friday, July 6, 2007

Fixing the moon -Gur Aryeh Bamidbar 28:15

The Midrash records that although the moon and sun were originally the same size, and they were told to rule over day and night, the moon had complaint before Hashem, "Two kings cannot rule with one crown." Hashem responded, "You are right, so make yourself smaller." Rashi to Bereshis 1:16. After this Hashem commanded that we bring a sin offering "for Him” because He made the moon smaller. Rashi to Bamidbar 28:15.
The Maharal (Gur Aryeh Bamidbar 28:15) explains, Hashem’s actions are perfect, but they don’t always look that way to us. It is true that a king has to rule in entirety, or he is not a king. However, its not fair that the moon had to be made smaller. The maharal introduces us to the inner idea of what a Korban is. It is brought to repair what's missing things in the world. Any time there is sin, a distance was created, and therefore Korban comes from the word to make close. The Korban repairs this distance, created in the world by the act of making the moon smaller, the "unfairness."
In this lies the story of the Jewish people as a whole, the story of David Hamelech, the story of Moshiach and the story of all of our lives as a whole, especially when things don't look fair...

Thursday, July 5, 2007

Nesiv Haavoda Chapter 1 and 3

The Maharal explains that Avodah is related to the word Eved, because just like a master owns the slave and the slaves entirety depends on the master, even more so, we are entirely dependent on Hashem... When we ask for something it is not that we do mitzvos on the condition to receive a reward... rather where else are you going to ask?

4 kingdoms 10 nations- Pachad Yitzchak Purim 3 (I think)

Classically there are 7 nations which fight for the control of the land against the Jewish people. Add to that three nations (Edom,Ammon, and Moav) whose land is close by but the Jews are not allowed to conquer until Moshiach comes.
The 10 nations are parallel to the lower 7 midos (Chesed till Malchus) the three others are Chochma Bina Daas.
Each nation stands as an opponent to the jews in their land and to a jew in his life.
At the same time, there are 4 kingdoms who fight with the Jewish people over their status of a nation, or to be exiled. They fight a war regarding the Jewish people's right to be. and a Jewish person's right to be.